Large Organization Software Development Misconception #1: Are “Dependencies” In Knowledge Work Caused By Immutable Laws Of Physics?

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I usually think a colleague of mine is being too harsh when he says “Keep project managers away from the teams!” After all, project managers are just trying to help, and people who’ve had that role in the past shouldn’t be shunned. They turn out to be valuable contributors.

But let’s not forget that the project manager role, prior training, and prior responsibilities are like kryptonite to agility.

Physical Analogies For Software Development (And Other Knowledge Work) Are Mental Traps

The following false analogy is a quote from a program manager (project manager on steroids). It reveals the mindset of someone with tools to manage dependencies in physical work – where they actually exist – but has not written software in a modern way:

People who think that dependencies are just figments of old-style thinking should convince me by first putting on a shoe and tying the laces, then putting on a sock that goes between their bare foot and the tied shoe without removing the shoe.

In knowledge work, “dependencies” are not caused by immutable laws of physics. The perceived need to plan around them through multiple Sprints is a symptom of obsolete organizational structure, policy, and skills. This should be directly addressed rather than institutionalized with the waterfall dependency management that masquerades as Agile scaling. The socks and shoes argument inadvertently demonstrates that “dependencies” in software development are figments of old-style thinking.

By the way, ten years ago I’d usually hear the same misconception expressed as a house analogy: “If you want to build a house, you have to build the foundation first. You can’t start with the roof.” And this may be true … about houses.

How is Knowledge Work Different?

The fundamental constraint of knowledge work is knowledge. Imagine that you had spent Monday through Thursday working on an essay, a song, or even a computer program. You tore up seven ways that you realized wouldn’t work. You took a walk outside. You slept on it. You did research and found an eighth way that looked like it would work, until you showed it to a friend who pointed out a serious flaw with one part of your idea. By Thursday afternoon you had nearly finished a ninth way that combined the best of your previous approaches and looked to be nearly done. Then Thursday night your cat walked across the keyboard and somehow deleted your entire git repository.

Would it take you another four days to get back to where you were? Of course not! By 10AM Friday you’d be back where you were Thursday night. So what was the fundamental constraint on that knowledge work? It wasn’t the typing. It was the knowledge creation – mostly the learning.

Perceived “dependencies” in knowledge work are caused by knowledge gaps.

Once we internalize this realization, it leads to a host of actions which seemed counterintuitive before – often the opposite actions that project management would advise. Is it possible that our organization’s structure and policies have actively encouraged these knowledge gaps instead of working to eliminate them?

A skillful software development organization allows the Product Owner to prioritize – not just “order” – the Product Backlog from a business perspective. Put away the red yarn.

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